trace elements
Where are they?
Properties Contributions
Calcium Cheese, Dairy Products, full meal, almonds, hazelnuts, sesame, parsley, turnip greens, dried figs, wheat germ … – Formation of bones and teeth.
– Blood clotting.
– Control of the nervous system and heart rate.
Minerals 600 to 1.4 mg
Chrome Whole grains, seafood, meat, offal, egg yolks, yeast, thyme, pepper, brown sugar … – Metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, proteins. Mineral salts0.05 to 0.2 mg
Cobalt Leafy vegetables, whole grains, legumes, egg yolk … – Protein metabolism. 0.13 micro g
(0.00013 mg)
Copper Whole grains, dried yeast, wheat germ and bran, green vegetables, seafood, liver, nuts, plums … – Enzyme Systems.
– Combat stress.
Mineral salts2-3 mg
Iron Offal, black pudding, meat, egg yolks, fish, wholemeal bread, wholemeal pasta, pulses, dates, millet, tahini, vegetables and dried fruit, green leafy vegetables (watercress …), etc. – Transport of oxygen through the body essential component of red blood cells …
– Training hemoglobin and myoglobin.
– Enzymatic activity.
Mineral salts10 to 20 mg
Fluorine Mineral water, tap water, fluoridated salt … – Prevention of tooth decay. 1 mg
Iodine Sea salt (unrefined), seafood, seaweed, fish, meat, vegetables, turnip, onion, watercress, green beans, radishes … – Formation of thyroid hormones, fetal development …. Minerals from 0.10 to 0.12 mg
Magnesium Whole grains, wheat germ, green leafy vegetables, soybeans, white beans, rice, peas, lentils, wholemeal bread, citrus, apples, nuts, hazelnuts, almonds, chocolate, fish … – Operation of muscles, nerves, intestines, active enzymes, works synergistically with calcium strengthens the immune … Minerals 350 mg
Manganese Wholegrain cereals, wholemeal bread, nuts, vegetables and pulses, artichoke, cloves, pineapple, tea, nuts, ginger, cloves … – Activator enzimes, helps absorb iron, strengthens the natural defenses, useful for the brain, liver, kidneys … Mineral salts4-20 mg
Molybdenum Whole grains, legumes, soy, eggs … – Enzyme activity 0.1 mg
Phosphorus Dairy products, eggs, meat, fish, rice, peas, lentils, white beans, wholemeal bread, vegetables and dried fruit, almonds, hazelnuts … – Establishment and strengthening of bones.
– muscular and cerebral Energizing, promotes the proper functioning of nerve cells …
Mineral salts1000 mg
Potassium Yeast, wine, vegetables and dried fruits, fruit and vegetables, meat, fish … – Contraction of muscles and heart.
– Transmission of nerve impulses.
4-6000 mg
Selenium Whole grains, wheat germ, brewer’s yeast, meat, eggs, offal, onion, garlic, cabbage … – Fight against free radicals.
– Aging.
– Protection of cell membranes.
– Immune.
– Blood clotting.
Minerals 0.07 mg
Silicon Whole grains, beer, silica, shallot, garlic, beet, sugar cane … – Bone growth (bone calcification.
– Training of cartilage.
– elasticity of connective tissue …
Mineral salts20 to 30 mg
Sodium Salt, cold cuts, cheese, canned … – Distribution of water in the body. 1000 to 5000 mg
Sulfur High protein foods, garlic, onions … – Composition of the protein structure 850 mg
Vanadium Rice, pepper, vegetable fats, spinach, tuna, beef liver, wine, beer … – Enzyme Activity.
– calcium transport.
– Sodium and potassium.
Minerals0.018 to 0.025 mg
Zinc Seafood, fish, liver, lamb, red meat, grains, oats, seeds, wheat germ, brewer’s yeast, almonds, dried vegetables … – Promotes Operates in the pancreas, concentration …
– Synthesis of proteins.
– Use of carbohydrates.
– Renewal of cells.
– Wound healing and anti-free radical.
Mineral salts10 to 15 mg


Sweet productsFrom our earliest years, we have a natural preference for sugar. This essential element in our body gives it the energy it needs to function, particularly in cases of stress.But, from a nutritional point of view, certain sugars are more beneficial than others.

This family of particularly large food includes all food products with a large sweet taste.They include: The various treats, candies , Jams, The chocolate bars, fruit pastes, sugar irrespective of its form,Syrups, Honey Nougat, The Bubble Gum, Chocolate Spreads. It also gives name to the family as the “empty calories” because of the low nutritional value of these foods.

Indeed, their first feature is their high intake of simple carbohydrates. Also found in some preparations lot of fat. Sugary products are generally made ​​from sugar syrup, oil, cream or butter, chocolate, and sometimes nuts.These ingredients give them a density very high energy (a lot of energy in a small volume) and low nutritional density (low quality nutrients such as vitamins, proteins, minerals and fiber salts for a given volume).

Logically, calories from this type of food (including table sugar) should not exceed more than 10% of our total daily energy intake. Sugary products have, within our power, an important role in the hedonistic and gustatory level. They provide pleasure and immediate satisfaction.

Despite this, take care not to abuse since they can be a source of overweight with weight gain more or less if consumption becomes too substantial. These foods take on their interest as part of an effort (hiking , skiing, cycling …) or during recovery as possible to bring a lot of energy very quickly and in a small volume, which gives them an undeniable advantage to take them anywhere


manger des vitaminesThere are thirteen vitamins essential for life that our diet must provide.

• Vitamins are found in all foods except sugar. But none contains all together. A varied and balanced diet covers our vitamin requirements.

• Deficiencies are common due to a diet too rich in sugar and fat.



Vitamins Sources Properties Contributions
Animals: animal liver, egg yolk, butter, cod liver oil, camembert, Milking, …
Fruits: melon, apricot, peach, orange, …
Vegetables: carrots, spinach, parsley, sweet potato, tomato, … (ß-carotene or provitamin A)
sprouted seeds: wheat, fenugreek, lentil, alfalfa, green soybean, mung bean, …
– Powerful antioxidant.
– acuity vision.
– Quality of the skin and mucous membranes.
– infection resistance.
– Bone Metabolism.
– The fight against cardiovascular diseases (except: butter, egg, …).
0.350 to 1.4 mg
Animal: liver, organ meats, pork, chicken, eggs, …
Dried fruits and vegetables: lentils, nuts, …
Vegetables: potatoes, asparagus, cabbage, …
Cereals: wheat germ, soy flour, bread and wholegrain cereals, yeast Beer …
Sprouts: oats, wheat, fenugreek, lentils, millet, barley, …
– Operation of nerve cells.
– Muscular generally.
– Cardiac especially.
– Fight against memory impairment.
– Metabolism of carbohydrates.
0.4 to 1.8 mg
Animal: liver, eggs, meats, organ meats, dairy products, …
Vegetables: mushrooms, green vegetables (broccoli, spinach, …).
Cereals: bread and whole grains, brewer’s yeast, …
Sprouts: oats, wheat, lentils, millet, barley, …
– Metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins. 0.6 to 1.8 mg
PP or B3
Animal: liver, chicken, rabbit, turkey, meat, poultry, tuna, fatty fish, …
Vegetables: Dried vegetables, legumes, potatoes, mushrooms, peppers, …
Cereals: Brewer’s yeast, whole grain cereals and bread, …
Seeds germinated : oats, corn, peas, green soybean, …
– Manufacture and degradation of proteins, fats and carbohydrates.
– Fight against memory impairment.
6 to 20 mg
Animal: meat, offal, fish, eggs, …
Pulses: peanuts, …
Vegetables & Fruits: mushroom, lawyers, …
Cereals: Brewer’s yeast, …
Other: Breast milk.
– Synthesis of fatty acids.
– Production of energy from fat and carbohydrates.
3-10 mg
Animal: veal liver, lamb, ham, eggs, chicken, meat, fish, cow’s milk …
Dried fruits …
fruits and vegetables: spinach, potatoes, cabbage …
Cereals: corn, whole wheat flour, bread and cereals Complete, beer yeast …
– Metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates and fats.
– Biosynthesis of serotonin.
0.6 to 2.5 mg
(vitamin H
or biotin)
Animal: chicken, eggs, lamb, pork, dairy products, cheese, sea fish, …
Dried fruits and vegetables: peas, beans, …
Vegetables: cauliflower, mushroom, carrot, tomato, spinach & # …
Cereals: Yeast beer, polished rice, wheat and oat flakes, …
Fruits: apple, orange juice, …
Other: Breast milk.
– Synthesis of glucose and fatty acids. 0.1 mg
B9 (folic acid
or folate.)
Animal: meat, chicken, eggs, liver, organ meats, fish, Dairy …
Vegetables: green vegetables, asparagus, spinach, carrot, cabbage, green beans, potato, …
Cereals: … complete, Brewer’s yeast, …
Fruits: bananas, tomatoes, …
Other: Breast milk.
– Biosynthesis of nucleic acids and proteins.
– Action at the level of red blood cells.
– The fight against memory impairment.
0.5 to 5 mg
Animal: liver beef and chicken, lamb, veal, pork, offal, dairy products, eggs, fish, …
Dried fruits and vegetables …
vegetables: purslane …
grains: wheat flakes and oats, yeast …
Other: Breast milk .
germinated seeds: lentils, barley, chickpeas, dry peas, …
– Operation of nerve cells.
– The fight against Alzheimer’s disease.
– Cardiovascular disease.
– Memory Disorders.
– Metabolism of proteins and nucleic acids.
– Action at the level of red blood cells.
0.01 to 0.04 mg
Animal: organ meats, beef, pork, fish, …
Fruits: acerola, rose hips, hawthorn berries, guava, black currant, kiwi, cherry, mango, strawberry, orange, lemon, grapefruit, gooseberry, melon, …
Vegetables: parsley, cabbage green, brussels sprouts, broccoli, cauliflower, watercress, spinach, turnip, cabbage, chard, fennel, green beans, onions, radishes, peppers, leeks, potatoes, peas, …
Sprouts: fenugreek, alfalfa, millet, barley, sunflower, …
– Anti-infective.
– absortion of iron.
– Synthesis of hormones.
– Metabolism of carbohydrates.
– The fight against cardiovascular diseases.
35 to 100 mg
Animal: fish, cod liver oil, poultry, liver, eggs, butter, dairy products, …
Sprouts: Alfalfa, sunflower, …
– Role capital ossification.
– calcium transport to the fetus in the placenta.
– Synthesis of interferon, a defense agent against viruses.
– Growth in skin cells.
– In muscle function …
0.01 to 0.03 mg
Animal: Margarine, red meat, fish, butter …
Dried fruits: raisins …
oils: wheat germ, palm, corn, soy …
Grains: Whole grains …
Sprouts: oats, wheat …, lentils, alfalfa, chickpeas, dry peas, sunflower, …
– Antioxidant.
– Anti-Aging.
– The fight against Parkinson’s disease.
– Anticancer.
– The fight against cardiovascular diseases.
4-18 mg
K Animal: meat, liver, eggs, fish, …
Vegetables: cabbage, parsley, cabbage, spinach, cauliflower, broccoli, lettuce, potatoes, green beans, …
Cereals …
– Coagulation sangine.
– calcification.
45 mic / gr


Carbohydrate molecule Proteins: building blocks of muscles, heart, blood, brain, organs. Lipids (or fat) energy reserve for sustained muscle activity and the fight against the cold; but also protection and formation of brain cells.

Comprise plural kinds of fatty acids, to equilibrate for better cardiovascular protection. Do not abuse butter and fatty cheeses, meats and fatty meats, fries, pastries … Cholesterol: partly manufactured by the body and partly provided by foods (brains, butter, organ meats).

Essential to the life of cells and synthesis of hormones, but its excess in the blood is a cardiovascular risk factor. Carbohydrates: rapidly available source of energy for muscle effort and brain activity. Two types of carbohydrates: “fast” to sweet taste which we must not abuse, and “slow” (starch) to be rehabilitated.

Calcium: constituent of bone, growth, strength and maintenance of the skeleton. Importance of contributions from childhood to ensure bone health for life (including prevention of osteoporosis). Iron: anti-anemic, forming red blood cells. . A monitor in adolescent girls, pregnant women, the elderly .

Magnesium: regulation of the nervous and muscular balance, heart rhythm Sodium: Sets the distribution of water in the body and blood volume; plays a crucial role in muscle contraction, including the heart. Must sometimes be limited, on prescription, under certain hypertension, heart or kidney disease.

Vitamin A: preserving sight, growth, antioxidant. Is in the form of carotene in colorful fruits and vegetables.

Vitamins B: Bl and B6: protection of the nervous system, B2: growth, B9 and B12: anti-anemic. All help in the proper assimilation of nutrients.

Vitamin C: iron absorption, growth, resistance to infection, antioxidant. Vitamin D: In part manufactured by the body under the effect of the sun, partly provided by animal products .

Vitamin E: antioxidant, action against tissue aging. Fibres: anti-constipation: mainly from grain products and vegetables; anti-cholesterol: mainly from fruits. Water: cell hydration, nutrient transport, waste disposal.


FatWhy is fat important?

Everyone has to eat a certain amount dematières fat to stay healthy. Fat provides you energy and help you absorb vitamins from food tellesque vitamins A, D, E and K.

How much fat is enough? The amount of fat you should eat each day depends your age, your gender and your activity level. In general, men should set a target to consume about 65 GPAR day, while women should cover about 50 g. This usually means you have to choose foods low in fat and add to food that a small amount (2 to 3 tablespoons or 15 to 30 g.) Of Saturated fats each day – hydrogenated margarine , oil or vinaigrette.

What happens if I eat too much fat? Eat fat is good for your health. However, eating too often high-fat foods may cause you to gain weight because these foods are very high in calories. But overweight peutaugmenter your risk of diabetes;consume too much fat can also cause other health problems, including cancer and heart disease.

Choose good fats – fats are not all identical. Some are good for your health, some not. Some foods high in fat teneuren, like chips or cookies, offer little nutrition with the fat they contain. Conversely, nuts, seeds, avocados, salmon, sardines and cheese, which also contain a lot of fat, also provide important nutrients. Monounsaturated fats are good choices and ilscontribuent to lower rates cholesterol in the blood. We find monounsaturated fats in olive oil, and soy decanola and foods containing them, as well as in nuts and avocados. Polyunsaturated fats also help to lower cholesterol.Two specific types of polyunsaturated fat – the fatty acids omega 3 and omega 6 – are very important to your health. Omega 3 is found in fish, flaxseed, walnuts and canola oil. The seeds, safflower oil, sunflower, corn and soybeans, and foods that contain them are good sources of omega

6. Unhealthy fats Saturated and trans fats are poor choices mainly because they can increase the cholesterol levels in the blood. It is therefore very important to eat less saturated and trans fats. These fats are found mostly in animal foods such as sausages and bacon and dairy products teneurélevée fat such as butter, whipping cream, sour cream, cream cheese and dips for chips. Trans fats come mostly from huilesvégétales solidified by partial hydrogenation. Among the foods that contain it are, in particular the margarinedure, lard, donuts, Danish pastries, cookies, crackers, chips and several types of snack foods.

For Healthy Eating Tips for meals at home

• Use less butter, but add a small amount of non-hydrogenated margarine or oil each day. Make your own salad dressings with oil and ingredients like balsamic vinegar, garlic and herbs.

• Enhance the flavor of your foods such as mustard, ketchup, chutney (relish) and sauce cranberries. • Seek cooking methods such as fat-free baking, on the grill or in the microwave.

• Try low-fat desserts – a serving of cheesecake pie oude can hold 20 g fat. Replace these desserts with fruit crisps or homemade sorbet, which respectively comprise 5 g and 2 g of fat per 125 ml.

• Buy skim or 1% – 250 ml of whole milk contains 8 grams of fat, while the same amount of 1% milk contains only 3. If you are used to whole milk, gradually switch by first passing the 2% milk.


Dairy productsPresent from the first moments of life, the milk has many qualities. Eaten as is or in the form of cheese, yoghurt … it remains a staple food.
The dairy group includes a large number of foods: milks (Crus, Sterilized, UHT, concentrated …) The cheeses;Yogurts and fermented milks; The creams and desserts.Sour cream and butter are not part of dairy produce but fats.

Various inputs Dairy products contain many valuable nutrients: -Of good quality protein but in smaller quantities than in the meat; -Of fatty acids and cholesterol in greater or lesser amount depending on the degree of “relief” product. 0% The products are indeed virtually devoid of fat;-Of soluble vitamins (such as B vitamins), and fat soluble vitamins (in the case of whole or semi-skimmed) -Of minerals and trace elements in lesser amounts; -Of “sugars” (carbohydrates) whose amount will vary according to the technological process of manufacturing the product.

Rich in calcium This food group is the main source of calcium and covers ¾ of our calcium needs. The calcium in milk and its derivatives is associated with many other nutrients, which in synergy, will promote assimilation and use. Recall that this calcium is the main component of bone matrix.

The cheese: richer than milk All products in this family are derived from milk, they all have the same origin and therefore the same components. The levels and compositions of these foods are similar but vary greatly depending on manufacturing process used. Cheeses such (curd and clotted) have much more substantial levels of fat, protein, calcium … as milk or yogurt.

Yogurt: bacteria live Yoghurt undergo a “lactic fermentation” ( by action of bacteria producing lactic acid will coagulate milk) by means of two bacteria: Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus acidophilus. To benefit from the designation yogurt, a coagulated milk must contain these two bacteria in quantities defined by regulations.

These preparations may also contain other bacteria such as Lactobacillus casei as is the case for Lc1. In addition of calcium intake, protein, lipid … these coagulated milk, the yogurt, provide live bacteria that have a predominant role in our health because, by colonizing the colon, they protect us from pathogenic bacteria and provide a metabolic role fundamental to the proper functioning of the intestine.

Dairy products should be eaten at every meal for their effects on the intestinal flora symbiotic but especially for calcium intake that must be consistent and distributed throughout the day.